Breast Cancer Treatments
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Radiation and surgery followed by chemotherapy are some of the breast cancer treatments available to patients. Find out more treatment options in this video.
Transcript: There are more than two million breast cancer survivors in the United States, and that's to the credit...
There are more than two million breast cancer survivors in the United States, and that's to the credit of today's growing number of treatment options! Breast cancer treatment goals are twofold: to remove as much of the cancer as possible and to prevent it from coming back. To do that, doctors rely on five treatment methods: surgery, chemotherapy, radiation, hormone therapy, and targeted therapy. Surgery is the most common treatment option, and it may involve removing just the cancerous tumor, as in a lumpectomy. More serious prognoses may require a mastectomy, the removal of the entire breast, usually including the nipple, often with lymph nodes in the armpit that may be affected. Many women who go through surgery receive additional treatment, like radiation, which uses high powered beams of energy to kill cancer cells. This can occur via an external machine, or through radioactive implants placed inside the body. Side-effects of radiation include a red rash at the treatment site, along with general fatigue. Radiation AND surgery are local treatments, made to eradicate cancer in one, targeted area. The remaining three treatment options are systemic, which means they attempt to control cancer cells ALL OVER the body. Chemotherapy, for example, is an oral or injected medication, that works by either stopping cancer cells from multiplying, or killing them completely. Unfortunately, chemo may also eradicate HEALTHY cells, which is why nausea, vomiting, hair loss and fever tend to occur. Another systemic treatment, hormone therapy, is effective for about two-thirds of cancers. Cancer cells contain receptors for estrogen, which they depend upon to grow. Hormone therapy seeks to block the body's estrogen from ever reaching the tumor. Tamoxifen is one such drug. It binds to estrogen receptors on cells, so that estrogen can't. Aromatase inhibitors, like the Arimedex and Femara, can reduce the body's production of estrogen while stopping it altogether in post-menopausal women. Menopausal-like symptoms, including decreased sex drive, hot flashes, and vaginal dryness, are common side-effects of hormone therapy. The final treatment option, targeted therapy, uses drugs or other substances to identify and attack ONLY specific cancer cells, leaving healthy cells intact. A popular example, Herceptin, blocks a protein called HER2, which some breast cancer cells need to grow and survive. Understand that targeted therapy of this type will ONLY work if the cancer is sensitive to the HER2 protein. This is true for about one-fourth of all cancers, and is determined by analyzing tissue samples in a lab. Any of these three systemic treatments may be used with the goal of killing any cancer cells that remain in the body after surgery or radiation, which is known as adjuvant therapy. Similarly, systemic treatments may be used BEFORE local treatments, hopefully shrinking a tumor and making it easier to remove. With so many treatment options available, creating the perfect plan to treat YOUR form of breast cancer shouldn't be hard. See your doctor and discuss your options.More »
Last Modified: 2014-06-10 | Tags »
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Are you dealing with cancer in your 20s? Find out how this differs from other age group cancers and learn about available cancer treatments here.
Last Modified: 2013-06-13 | Tags »
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Anticipating chemotherapy can be tough due to fear and doubt throughout the process. Watch this video to learn more about anticipationg chemo.
Last Modified: 2012-11-17 | Tags »
invasive lobular breast cancer, hodgkins lymphoma, ABVD chemotherapy, cancer preparation, cancer news, cancer anticipation, , chemo room, chemo, biopsy, cyclophosphamide methotrexate fluorouracil, CMF chemotherapy, round 1, Paul Berman, AnneMarie ciccarella, Kelly Johnson cancer stories, tumor, cancer diagnosis, breast cancer, abnormal cell growth, cell division, cell mutation, unregulated cell growth, cancer surgey, treatment rounds cancer, disease, onocology malignant neoplasm
Prostate cancer is unfortunately a very common occurrence. But your risk can be minimized. Watch this for tips on preventing prostate cancer.
Transcript: Prostate cancer is the second most common form of cancer in men-but what if you could take steps to prevent...
Prostate cancer is the second most common form of cancer in men-but what if you could take steps to prevent it? Cancer is scary, but-believe it!-you can take positive steps to protect your prostate by logging more sex sessions! Researchers found that men, who averaged 21 ejaculations a month, were a third less likely to have prostate cancer, than those who ejaculated less frequently. That's because semen contains carcinogenic, or cancer causing, substances. "Flushing" them regularly may lower the risk of damage. And how about upping your alcoholic intake...to a daily glass of wine! One study found that the antioxidants in fermented grapes can inhibit the growth of cancer cells and cut prostate cancer risk in half! The hair-loss treatment, Propecia, generically called finasteride, may also help reduce the likelihood of developing prostate cancer. Finasteride blocks the production of an undesirable hormone that triggers hair-loss and prostate growthFollow these tips, and your prostate will have extra protection against cancer!More »
Last Modified: 2013-08-29 | Tags »
sex, sexy, sexual, sexhealthguru, guru, health, prevent, preventing, prostate, cancer, man, men, ejaculate, cum, come, orgasm, semen, carcinogenic, alcohol, grapes, propecia, hormone, protection, risk, doctor, cells, curable, video, guys, diet
One in six men will develop prostate cancer during his life. But there are simple steps to help in preventing prostate cancer. Watch this to see what they are.
Transcript: One in six men will develop prostate cancer during his life. This may seem scary, but here are some...
One in six men will develop prostate cancer during his life. This may seem scary, but here are some simple steps that can help keep you safe! One of the easiest ways to protect your prostate is a lot of fun... get spicy and get saucy! A daily intake of just three cloves of garlic, or two tablespoons of scallions, can cut cancer risk in half! And two weekly helpings of tomato sauce can slice risk by almost thirty percent! Why? Antioxidants like lycopene in tomatoes and organo-sulfur compounds in garlic get credit for these food's abilities to fight cancer-causing cell damage. After your delicious Italian meal, enjoy a cup of green or black tea with dessert, another proven prostate cancer-fighter. And while it's not preventative, it IS smart: Make sure to see your doctor for annual prostate exams after your 40th birthday. Caught quickly, almost 100 percent of prostate cancers are curable-a statistic sure to make it easier to endure that gloved finger!More »
Last Modified: 2013-08-29 | Tags »
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The prostate--you know its name but you might not know its function. Learn more about the prostate and what it's good for by watching this video.
Transcript: Just like all men have penises, all men have prostates, but most are more acquainted with the former!...
Just like all men have penises, all men have prostates, but most are more acquainted with the former! The prostate is a walnut-sized organ which can be both a pleasure center and a place where cancer can reside. The prostate is located between the bladder and the penis in the front of the rectum. The urethra, which carries urine from the bladder through the penis, passes through the prostate's center. The nerves that control erection are attached to both sides of the prostate, as they extend to the penis. The prostate produces seminal fluid, which nourishes and "carries" sperm. Male ejaculate, or semen, is a mixture of this seminal fluid and sperm. The prostate is surrounded by sensitive nerves, which is why some men enjoy anal play. The organ is also the location where prostate cancer, one of the most common forms of the disease, shows up. So, particularly if you're a male over 40, get your prostate checked annually-it can only do you good!More »
Last Modified: 2013-06-13 | Tags »
prostate, prostate facts, prostate function, what is the prostate, prostate basics, what does the prostate do, control erection, seminal fluid, sperm, prostate health, prostate cancer bladder, rectum, urethra, seminal fluid, sperm, nerves, sensitivity sex health, men's health
Something like 6 million people in the US have HPV. Because it is so common, understanding HPV symptoms and risks is vital to initial detection. Learn more about this condition by watching this video.
Transcript: Human papillomavirus, or HPV, is a group of wart-inducing viruses that infects more than 6.2 million...
Human papillomavirus, or HPV, is a group of wart-inducing viruses that infects more than 6.2 million American men and women each year. About 40 of the more than 100 varieties are transmitted through sexual contact. There is no cure for HPV, but most infections clear without treatment in mere months. There are, however, several high-risk strains that can linger, causing precancerous lesions or full-blown cancer. These require immediate medical attention to control. The 40 strains of HPV that affect the genitals are passed through sexual contact. Symptoms do not need to be present to pass the virus to another person. HPV can be passed to and from the skin of the penis, vulva, or anus, as well as the linings of the vagina, cervix, and rectum. In rare cases, genital HPV can also be passed from mother to child during a vaginal birth. Since most strains have adapted to specific areas of the body, not all contact is a potential way to spread HPV. Hand-to-genital contact, for example, is unlikely to infect the hand. The most obvious symptom of genital HPV is warts. These pink or flesh-colored swellings are soft to the touch and may be flat or raised. Most genital warts are cauliflower shaped, or lumpy, with irregular edges. Genital warts can range in size. Some people have just one or two, while others experience multiple warts in one area. More likely, however, a sufferer of genital HPV will have no symptoms of the virus at all, and will remain unaware that he or she is infected. Whether symptoms of HPV appear or not will vary by strain. The type of genital HPV that causes warts, for example, wont also cause cancerous cells to form. But it is possible to be infected with multiple strains of genital HPV. Your doctor can easily diagnose some strains of HPV with visual observation of your warts. Other, symptom-less strains are tougher to discern. For women, a diagnosis of HPV is made with a Pap smear, an internal swab that is part of a normal check-up, and screens for cervical cancer. Many kinds of genital HPV cause precancerous changes in the cervical cells, prompting an abnormal test result. Following an abnormal result, the swabbed cells will be tested for HPV DNA to confirm the particular strain of the disease. Men, however, are out of luck when it comes to HPV screeningthere are currently no tests available for them. Without any visible warts, men must rely on regular physical examinations by a doctor to spot precancerous cells and growths. Although genital HPV is a commonand often symptom-free STDit can lead to serious health problems. For this reason, regular check-ups and smart sexual practices are vital once a person becomes sexually active.More »
Last Modified: 2012-12-28 | Tags »
hpv, human papilloma virus, genital warts, hpv transmission, hpv cure, hpv strains, hpv symptoms. asymptomatic hpv, cervical cancer, preventing hpv, avoiding hpv, hpv causes precancerous lesions, sexual contact, cauliflower shape, flesh colored swelling sex health, STDs
HPV is a common sexually transmitted infection that can lead to serious health problems in men and women if left untreated. Watch this video to learn more about HPV and how to avoid it.
Transcript: The human papillomavirus, or HPV, is an extremely common viral infection. There are about 40 varieties...
The human papillomavirus, or HPV, is an extremely common viral infection. There are about 40 varieties that infect the genitals and which can be passed through sexual contact, even if a person is not exhibiting symptoms. Genital HPV's effects on health can be severe and will vary depending on the HPV strain, and by the strength of the patient's immune system. After a person contracts HPV, his or her body develops some immunity to it. That immune response often squashes symptoms should a person be re-infected, or if the infection lingers. Each strain of HPV has a particular effect on the body. The one that causes genital warts, for example, doesn't cause precancerous lesions. But it IS possible to be infected with multiple strains of genital HPV at the same time. Some strains of the virus don't have an impact in the body. With no symptoms, a person may not even know they have HPV. Other strains produce genital warts, which may appear as a single swelling or a rash. These pink or flesh-colored bumps are usually soft to the touch. Most have a unique cauliflower-like shape that is raised and bumpy. Warts can appear on the thighs, anus and groin area in both men and women. Men can develop them on the penis and scrotum, while women may get warts inside the vagina and cervix. Genital warts are generally harmless.However, more severe health problems will follow from infection with one of the 13 "high risk" strains of genital HPV. These strains cause cell changes in the genital area. If someone contracts high-risk strains repeatedly, or develops a lingering infection, the long-term damage can prompt precancerous or cancerous tumor growths to form. In women, persistent genital HPV infections are a precursor to both cervical and vaginal cancers. In fact, a person cannot contract these cancers unless they've had genital HPV. Cervical cancer starts out as a collection of precancerous cells, a condition called dysplasia. As the cells multiply, mild dysplasia increases in severity. Left unchecked for several years, dysplasia develops into an early form of cancer called cervical carcinoma in situ, and then cervical cancer. A Pap smear can detect even mild dysplasia, which usually can be fully treated...This is just one more reason for women to have an annual Pap smear! In rare cases, prolonged infections in men can also lead to penile cancer. Both men and women are also susceptible to cancers of the anus, mouth and throat as a result of repeated infections with the HPV strains targeting these areas. This means that anal and oral sex aren't without HPV risks. If an HPV infection is caught early, a doctor can begin treatments to prevent precancerous growths from becoming cancerous. Genital HPV has no cure, but its symptoms can be treated. For this reason, it's important to talk to your doctor about safe sex and STD testing.More »
Last Modified: 2012-12-28 | Tags »
hpv, human papilloma virus, genital warts, hpv transmission, hpv cure, hpv strains, hpv symptoms. asymptomatic hpv, cervical cancer, hpv complications, effects of hpv, high risk hpv, hpv infection, pap smear, hpv treatment precancerous lesions, sexual contact, cauliflower shape, flesh colored swelling, cancerous growth, tumor, dysplasia, cervical carcinoma sex health, STDs
Over 50 percent of the adult population experience HPV during their lifetime. However, treatment of HPV is simple and effective. Find out more in this video.
Transcript: The human papillomavirus, or HPV, is a common STD which affects more than 50 percent of sexually active...
The human papillomavirus, or HPV, is a common STD which affects more than 50 percent of sexually active Americans at some point in their lifetimes. Different strains of the virus lead to different problems, from uncomfortable genital warts to serious genital cancer. Even more commonly, HPV causes no problems and clears up on its own. Through preventative measures, you can limit your risk for contracting genital HPV. This starts with an understanding that a symptom-free partner isn't necessarily HPV-free. That's why it's important to practice protected sex. A latex condom limits skin-to-skin contact, reducing transmission risk. However, condoms are not 100 percent effective at stopping the spread of HPV. Some strains can be passed by contact between parts that would not be protected by a condom. One extremely effective preventative measure, which is only available for women and girls between the ages of nine and 26, is vaccination with Gardasil. This three-part vaccine protects against infection from HPV strains that cause genital warts, cervical cancer, and anal cancer. If a person DOES contract genital HPV, the virus cannot be cured, but the SYMPTOMS often can. Some strains of HPV cause no symptoms and require no treatment, while others need a doctor's care. Genital warts are the most visible symptom of HPV and generally require prescription medication. Applied daily, creams like Condylox and Aldara boost the immune system to help fight off the virus and eliminate the warts. A doctor may also remove warts via an in-office procedure. Freezing with liquid nitrogen, burning with trichloracetic acid or electrical currents, and surgical removal with a scalpel or laser are all relatively painless options. Of these, surgical excision is often the most effective, usually requiring just one in-office treatment. Regular doctor's visits are a must for the effective treatment of high-risk genital HPV strains, which cause precancerous and cancerous growths. Treatment is more effective if the virus is caught early. For women, this means undergoing an annual Pap smear, a test which screens for cervical cancer. HPV can cause cell changes in the cervix, which show up as an abnormal result on this test. There are no screening tests for men, however regular physical examinations can lead to early diagnosis of penile cancer. Following an abnormal Pap smear or visual confirmation of a tumor, a doctor aims to remove the abnormal cells affected by genital HPV BEFORE they become cancerous. How a doctor removes the abnormal cells varies. She may freeze the cells with liquid nitrogen, excise them with an electrical current, or perform a biopsy, where the cells are removed during surgery. On occasion, precancerous cell changes can heal without treatment, so some doctors may opt to watch and wait for a time before attempting to remove the cells. If you're infected with HPV, you are part of the majority! Luckily, treatments are available to help with HPV's range of symptoms, so talk to your doctor about your choices.More »
Last Modified: 2013-04-25 | Tags »
hpv, human papilloma virus, genital warts,how to prevent hpv, preventing genital warts, how to prevent genital warts, hpv transmission, hpv cure, hpv strains, hpv symptoms,asymptomatic hpv, cervical cancer, preventing hpv, avoiding hpv, hpv causes, hpv vaccine, gardasil safe sex, condoms, prescription medication, genital wart removal, trichloracetic acid, liquid nitrogen, hpv screening, pap smear sex health, stds
Breast reconstruction is common after a lumpectomy or a mastectomy due to breast cancer. Watch this for more on breast reconstruction surgery.
Transcript: Techniques for breast reconstruction has come a long way, and this video is a great place to get acquainted...
Techniques for breast reconstruction has come a long way, and this video is a great place to get acquainted with the most modern advances. Wendy Lewis, an international beauty consultant and expert, and author of America's Cosmetic Doctors, is here to help you navigate the newest developments. Women with congenital breast deformities as well as women who have undergone a lumpectomy or a mastectomy can often suffer considerably from the physical and psychological implications of their condition. Breast reconstruction is an umbrella term which describes a variety of surgical methods designed to help the recovery of such women. Breast reconstruction can be performed in conjunction with a lumpectomy or a mastectomy, or can be delayed for weeks or even years after the initial procedure. Breasts can be reconstructed using an implant, your own tissue or a combination of both. Surgery is usually not a one-time procedure, but rather a series of necessary steps to achieve the final result. Potential stages might include tissue expansion, insertion of an implant, and performing nipple or areola reconstruction. Cosmetic work on the other breast may also be done at the same time so that your breasts will appear symmetrical and identical. After a mastectomy, if your skin is very tight you may need tissue expansion prior to reconstruction. To do this, a balloon expander is placed under the skin and chest muscle, and is gradually filled with salt-water solution to stretch the skin. The process will take from several weeks to a few months, at which point either the expander will be left in or it will be replaced with a permanent implant, and the areola can be reconstructed. Another method of breast reconstruction involves the grafting of your own tissue onto the breast and then reconnecting the blood vessels contained in the tissue to the grafting site. The advantage of this surgery is that your own skin will be used, however it is more complex and involves additional scarring and a longer recovery period, since there are two surgical sites that must heal. Women undergoing breast reconstruction have a choice of implants filled with silicone gel or sterile saltwater. In most cases, surgery can be performed in the hospital or an outpatient surgery center. Recovery may take up to two weeks. For best results, breast reconstruction should be performed by a board-certified plastic surgeon. You should see several surgeons to discuss all your options before undergoing breast cancer surgrey so you know what to expect. When performed by an expert surgeon, your breasts can be beautifully restored to look very natural. While there is no evidence that reconstructive breast surgery will either prevent future cancer or cause it to return, you should continue to visit your doctor for regular mammograms to keep your new breasts healthy. For more on what to expect during breast reconstruction, check out the other resources on our site.More »
Last Modified: 2013-09-27 | Tags »
breast reconstruction, breast cancer, mastectomy, lumpectomy, implant, silicone, plastic surgery, breast surgery, breast implant, cosmetic surgery cancer, implant, surgery, breast deformity, breast lump conditions, breast health, women's health boob job
It can be scary to find a new lesion or an expanding mole on your body. Which growths are serious and which aren't? Watch our Skin Cancer: Examining Skin Growth video to learn more.
Transcript: It can be frightening to find a strange-looking lesion or an expanding mole on your body! In this video,...
It can be frightening to find a strange-looking lesion or an expanding mole on your body! In this video, dermatologist Hadley King discusses what might be happening on your skin. There are three main types of skin cancer and each looks a little bit different. Skin Cancer can be fatal if allowed to spread to the body's vital organs. That's why every suspicious looking growth should be examined by a dermatologist. The main forms of skin cancer include melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma. In addition, precancerous lesions, known as actinic keratoses, can also appear on the skin. If left untreated, actinic keratoses, or AKs, can develop into the skin cancer squamous cell carcinoma. That's why it's important to identify AKs early. AKs do vary in appearance. They can range in size from that of a pinhead to a quarter, and in color from light tan to red. Occasionally, a raised growth, called a cutaneous horn, will form. Basal cell carcinoma, or BCC, is the most common form of skin cancer. It can crop up in a variety of ways and is sometimes confused for other skin conditions, like melanoma or a mild rash. I used to be obsessed with tanning-I was always at the local pool! Then one day, my husband noticed a small red patch on my skin. We thought it was a rash, but it didn't go away, so I went to see a dermatologist. Turns out, I had basal cell carcinoma! I was lucky that my doctor diagnosed and treated me quickly. A BCC tumor will often appear as a smooth, round growth that's pearly gray or yellow and may bleed regularly. A pimple-like growth with a crusted surface and a threadlike border is also indicative of a BCC. A basal cell carcinoma can also appear as a scar-like growth that spreads rapidly. The second type of non-melanoma skin cancer, squamous cell carcinoma, can begin as an AK lesion. However, SCC typically shows up as a wart-like growth that is thick and rough. SCC tumors may have a crusty top that occasionally bleeds. This type of cancer can also manifest as an open sore that bleeds for weeks at a time. The most serious form of skin cancer is melanoma. If left untreated and allowed to spread, melanoma can result in death. Usually, this type of cancer shows up as a new mole, or as a mole that changes in appearance. Any mole that changes in color or grows bigger should be checked out by a dermatologist. In addition, a mole that has uneven borders or appears to be asymmetrical can be a melanoma. While a mole on its own is not necessarily cancerous, it's important to be aware that people with more than 50 of these growths are more likely to be candidates for melanoma. If diagnosed early, most skin cancers can be treated! But because it's very difficult to Identify skin lesions, talk to your doctor immediately if you notice any changes in the appearance or texture of your skin.More »
Last Modified: 2013-06-12 | Tags »
actinic keratoses, cutaneous horn, basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, melanoma, cancerous skin growths, cancerous moles, basal cell carcinoma pictures, basal skin cell carcinoma, dermatologist, ak, carcinoma, cancer, moles, skin growths, warts, lesions, skin appearance, skin cancer signs, skin cancer symptoms, types of skin cancer conditions, skin health
Pre-cancerous lesions called actinic keratoses, crop up on millions of Americans every year. Let's take a closer look at AKs.
Transcript: More than ten million Americans have pre-cancerous growths, known as actinic keratoses, on their skin....
More than ten million Americans have pre-cancerous growths, known as actinic keratoses, on their skin. What exactly are actinic keratoses? Actinic keratoses, or AKs, are a common skin condition characterized by rough, scaly patches, on the top layer of skin. AKs occur due to sun exposure over long periods of time. Although AKs are not actually cancer they are classified as the earliest stage in its development. AKs are not always dangerous, but 16 percent of untreated cases will grow into squamous cell carcinoma, a type of skin cancer. All AKs develop from keratinocytes, which are the tough-walled cells that make up 90 percent of the skin's outer layer. Years of sun damage can cause these cells to change in size and shape, resulting in the skin lesions that are characteristic of AKs. AKs usually develop on areas of the skin that receive the most exposure to sunlight. These include the face, ears, scalp, neck, forearms and the backs of hands. Sometimes, lesions appear on the lips, a condition that is called actinic cheilitis. AKs vary in appearance. They can range in size from that of a pinhead to a quarter, and in color from light tan to red. On occasion, a lesion will grow into a small horn, called a cutaneous horn. Almost anyone can get AKs, however some people are more prone to them than others. It is certainly true that those who have spent a great amount of time in the sun are more likely to develop the growths. Because AKs develop with cumulative exposure to the sun's ultraviolet rays, the skin lesions are most often found in people 50 years of age or older. Earlier occurrence is rare and can usually be linked to tanning beds and sunny locations. I spent 52 years working in construction, so I was always outside. Two years ago, a growth appeared on my scalp which wouldn't go away. Luckily, my doctor diagnosed me with actinic keratoses and quickly removed the lesion. People with fair skin, light hair and light eyes are usually more sensitive to the sun's rays, and therefore more likely to develop AKs on their skin. For this reason, individuals with darker skin types rarely develop these lesions. The prevalence of AKs is higher in men than in women. Although no one knows why, it has been theorized that this is due to greater likelihood that men will have outdoor occupations, and thus receive greater sun exposure. A weakened immune system, or immunosuppression, can also increase the odds of developing AKs. Many factors can stifle the immune system, among them: taking medication to prevent organ rejection, chemotherapy and the AIDS virus. Because AKs can progress to become squamous cell carcinoma, it's important for people with AKs to be under a dermatologist's care. A dermatologist will usually be able to treat actinic keratoses safely and effectively, ensuring that you stay healthy. Remember, see your doctor immediately if you have any concerns about your skin.More »
Last Modified: 2013-09-27 | Tags »
precancerous skin growths, actinic keratoses, keratinocytes, actinic keratosis, aks, actinic keratoses pictures, squamous cell carcinoma pictures, basal cell carcinoma, cancerous moles,skin cancer detection dermatologist, moles, cancer, growths, skin cancer signs, skin cancer symptoms conditions