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Epilepsy is a brain disorder which results due to uncontrolled, excessive and synchronous electrical activity. Watching this video will help in understanding epilepsy and seizures better.
Transcript: A seizure is not a disease in itself. A seizure is a symptom of many different disorders that can affect...
A seizure is not a disease in itself. A seizure is a symptom of many different disorders that can affect the brain. Some seizures can hardly be noticed, while others are totally disabling. A seizure is frightening, and to many people, mysterious. The word itself comes from the Greek word meaning "to take hold." Over centuries, the word "seizure" conveyed people being taken over by supernatural forces, either Gods or Devils. Today, we understand that a seizure is not a supernatural entity. It is simply a medical condition in which too many brain cells become excited at the same time. The brain is an electrochemical machine. Nerve cells or neurons use chemical reactions to generate electricity, like a very complex battery. When a neuron becomes excited, it passes an electrical signal along its thin biological wire, called an axon, to communicate with other neurons in the brain. Those other neurons either can be excited or inhibited by the signal. When too many neurons become excited all at once, a seizure can result. A seizure is like an electrical storm in the brain. During this abnormal electrical storm, the involved parts of the brain cannot perform their normal tasks, and people experience sudden alterations in movements, sensations, awareness or behavior. A seizure typically goes on for a few seconds to a few minutes. The end of a seizure is a transition back to the individual's normal state. Because the word "ictus" is Latin for seizure, this period of recovery is referred to as the "post-ictal period," which can last from seconds to hours. A person's level of awareness gradually improves during the post-ictal period. Doctors are often asked what the difference is between a seizure and epilepsy. To the medical community, epilepsy is the condition of having spontaneously recurrent seizures. That means that one isolated seizure is not defined as epilepsy. There must be two or more seizures, or one seizure with a high chance of having another. To count as epilepsy, the seizures have to appear spontaneously, without an immediate precipitating factor. If Johnny falls off his motorcycle, hits his head and has two seizures on the scene, it is not epilepsy, because the seizures were immediately precipitated by head trauma. However, if he recovers, then starts having seizures weeks, months or years later as a result of the traumatic brain injury, then that does count as epilepsy. The word "epilepsy" has a long history of social stigma. But epilepsy is nothing more than a brain disorder caused by uncontrolled excessive and synchronous electrical activity. It is a medical condition, just as is diabetes or a heart attack. If you are concerned that you might have epilepsy, please see a physician. "The movies in this series can be viewed in any order. If you wish to watch these clips in their original sequence, the next clip is, "What are the different types of seizures?"More »
Last Modified: 2013-06-04 | Tags »
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Seizures is a medical condition that is divided into two types. Watch our video to learn in detail about the different types of seizures and how to manage them.
Transcript: The word "seizure" is used to dscribe the medical condition in which too many brain cells become excited...
The word "seizure" is used to dscribe the medical condition in which too many brain cells become excited simultaneously, but there are actually so many that neurologists are still updating how to classify them. Usually, they classify seizures into two main types, partial seizures and primary generalized seizures. The difference between these types is in how they begin: Partial seizures, which begin in a single part of the brain, are further described by two additional criteria. A. The first is whether awareness, memory, and consciousness are preserved during the seizure. If they all are preserved, then a seizure is called "simple partial." B. However, if any are impaired then the seizure is called "complex partial."The impact of a partial seizure depends on where in the brain it originates, and how it spreads. Partial seizures sometimes have an aura, which is a warning that bigger seizures may follow. An aura usually occurs seconds to minutes before seizure, but some patients can have periods of warning lasting a day or longer. Technically, the aura is itself a small simple partial seizure. There are many different ways in which people experience an aura. The start of a seizure in one of the temporal lobes can produce unusual feelings, like abnormal sensation or forced thinking. The onset of a complex partial seizure may be heralded by dj vu, a familiar feeling, or jamai vu, an unfamiliar feeling. Some patients have auras of sounds, tastes, distorted vision, racing thoughts, or smells, like burning rubber. Physical sensations occurring as auras are dizziness, headache, lightheadedness, and numbness. An upset stomach is a particularly common phsycial symptom. Auras can include a sense of tingling rising up the body or other strange feelings difficult to describe. Distorted emotions, like fear or panic, can also be a seizure warning. However, some complex partial seizures occur without any remembered warning. Primarily generalized seizures begin with a widespread electrical discharge that involves both sides of the brain at once. Partial seizures begin with an electrical discharge in one limited area of the brain. All generalized seizures begin with synchronous electrical activity throughout the brain accompanied by sudden generalized movements or loss of consciousness. However, there are still many different types of generalized seizure. A tonic-clonic seizure, once called a "grand mal," is what most people think of when they hear the word "seizure." When someone experiences a tonic-clonic seizure, first they stiffen and lose consciousness, which is the "tonic" phase. Then, they begin jerking, which lasts for several minutes and is called the "clonic" phase. Sometimes seizures don't have a tonic stiffening and clonic jerking sequence, but are just tonic seizures or clonic seizures. A. Other types of generalized seizure include absence seizures, when the sufferer "disconnects" from the world for a few seconds, B. myoclonic seizures, which cause jerking, but just for a second or two, C. and atonic seizures, which cause people to lose all muscle tone and drop to the ground. Understanding the different types of seizures can be helpful, but many people want more detailed information. The next two videos in this series provide an in-depth look at the effect of partial seizures on different parts of the brain and the different types of generalized seizures. "The movies in this series can be viewed in any order. If you wish to watch these clips in their original sequence, the next clip is, "Understanding the Different Types of Partial Seizures."More »
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Watch this video to discover how different types of partial seizures affect people in diverse ways. Understanding partial seizures better will help clear up misconceptions about this condition.
Transcript: Different types of seizures can produce profoundly different effects. In this video, Dr. Fisher will...
Different types of seizures can produce profoundly different effects. In this video, Dr. Fisher will explain why different kinds of partial seizures affect people in different ways. A partial seizure begins with an electrical discharge in one limited area of the brain. How a partial seizure affects someone depends on whether it is a simple partial seizure or a complex partial seizure, and where in the brain it occurs. A. Different parts of the brain control different functions. B. The cortex or "thinking Other deeper brain structures relate to life-support functions, movement, and other semi-automatic behaviors.part" of the brain is divided into four lobes: C. frontal, D. temporal, E. parietal and F. occipital. At the back end of the frontal lobe is the motor strip, which signals muscles to move. A seizure in this part of brain will cause uncontrolled movements or twitching, lasting for a few seconds to a few minutes. A. Towards the top of the motor strip are nerves controlling the leg muscles. B. Lower down, are nerves controlling the trunk, then the arms, fingers, face, and mouth. If a seizure spreads along the motor strip, the twitching can "march" along the different parts of the body. Just behind the motor strip is the skin sensation area. A seizure here will cause tingling in the affected part of the body. However, tingling in the skin usually is not due to seizures. The back lobe of the brain is the occipital lobe. It contains brain cells responsible for vision. Seizures in the occipital lobe can produce flashing lights, shimmering lines, or visual hallucinations. These vision abnormalities must be distinguished from those produced during migraine headaches, a condition different from epilepsy. The temporal lobe is the part of brain most prone to develop seizures. The temporal lobe is responsible for many complex activities, including the formation and retrieval of memories, and control of emotional states. If a temporal seizure spreads to both temporal lobes, then the manifestations of the seizure increase, with a pause in ongoing activities, confusion, temporary memory loss and fragmentary automatic behaviors. This type of seizure is called a complex partial seizure. It is the most common type of seizure in adults, and it used to be called a "psychomotor seizure" or a "temporal lobe seizure." However, some complex partial seizures originate in other lobes of the brain. A. In general, when awareness, memory, and consciousness are preserved during the seizure, then a seizure is called "simple partial." B. However, if any are impaired then the seizure is called "complex partial." Someone experiencing a complex partial seizure lives in a moment-to-moment world. During this time, he or she may repeat the same phrase or action over and over in an automatic loop, not recognizing the repetition. This person may also fumble hands, smack the lips, or grab tightly on to things during the seizure. This automatic activity is called an automatism. Others just freeze in place and stare blankly, with no automatisms and hardly any movement. After a complex partial seizure, people don't remember what was said to them or even what they did during the seizure. Later, the memory starts working again, except for a gap during the seizure. Understanding what occurs during a seizure begins with the insight that there are different kinds of seizures, each with a different impact. If you or someone close to you is suffering from seizures, please see a physician immediately. "The movies in this series can be viewed in any order. If you wish to watch these clips in their original sequence, the next clip is, "What are the different types of generalized seizures?"More »
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There are many different types of generalized seizures. Watch this video to better understand generalized seizures and their symptoms and treatments.
Transcript: There are many different types of generalized seizures. In this video Dr. Fisher explains the most common...
There are many different types of generalized seizures. In this video Dr. Fisher explains the most common ones. Generalized seizures are characterized by synchronous electrical activity throughout the brain, but each type of generalized seizure has a different effect on people. Here's a typical story from the parent of someone who gets tonic-clonic seizures, which were once called "grand mal" seizures. "These seizures only last a minute or two but it seems like forever. I can often tell Heather's going to have one when she's acting cranky. It begins with an unnatural shriek. Then she falls, and every muscle seems to be activated. Her teeth clench. She's pale, and later she turns slightly bluish. Shortly after she falls, her arms and upper body start jerking, while her legs remain stiff. This is the longest part of the seizure. Finally it stops and she falls fast asleep." A tonic-clonic seizure is what most people think of when they hear the word "seizure." Although these seizures are distressing to watch, the person having them is unaware. We don't believe that these seizures are painful, but people can injure themselves by biting their tongue or straining their muscles. The tonic or stiffening phase comes first: All the muscles stiffen. Air being forced past the vocal cords causes a cry or groan. The person loses consciousness and falls down. The tongue or cheek may be bitten, so bloody saliva may come from the mouth. The person may turn blue in the face. After the tonic phase comes the clonic or jerking phase: The arms and usually the legs jerk rapidly and rhythmically, bending and relaxing. After a few minutes, the jerking slows and stops. Bladder or bowel control sometimes is lost as the body relaxes. Consciousness returns slowly, and the person may be drowsy, confused, agitated, or depressed. Sometimes seizures don't have a tonic stiffening and clonic jerking sequence, but are tonic only or clonic only. These isolated tonic or clonic seizures are rarer than combination tonic-clonic seizures. Absence seizures used to be called petit mal seitzures. Here's a typical story: Frank, a young man, often "blanks out" for up to 20 seconds at a time. During a seizure, Frank doesn't seem to hear anyone, he blinks repetitively, and his eyes roll up a bit. During shorter seizures, he just stares. Then he continues on as if nothing happened. Some days Frank has over 50 of these spells. Absence seizures usually begin between ages 4 and 14. Absence seizures can resemble episodes of daydreaming. If they go on for more than 30 seconds or if there is a lot of movement, then the seizure is called an "atypical absence," which is harder to treat. Here's a story from someone who gets Myoclonic Seizures: "Each morning, I get these 'jumps.' My arms fly up for a second, and I often drop what I'm holding. Sometimes my mouth shuts for a split second. Other times, I get several jumps in a row. Once I've been up for a few hours, the jumps stop." Myoclonic seizures usually last only a second or two. There can be just one jerk, or a series of several. Consciousness may be lost, but the seizures are usually so brief that it's hard to tell. Here's a typical story from someone whose husband has Atonic Seizures: A. "When Bob has a 'drop' seizure, he falls to the ground and often hits his head and bruises himself. B. Even if I'm right next to him and prepared, I may not catch him." The sudden loss of muscle tone during an atonic seizure can cause the head to drop suddenly, objects to fall from the hands, or the legs to lose strength. This type of seizure is also called an "akinetic seizure" or an "epileptic drop attack." If you have or think you may have one of these types of epileptic seizures, please see your doctor. "The movies in this series can be viewed in any order. If you wish to watch these clips in their original sequence, the next clip is, "Who Gets and What Causes Epilepsy?"More »
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Epilepsy may be triggered by a variety of different factors. Watch this video to learn about what causes epilepsy.
Transcript: Epilepsy affects nearly 3 million Americans. But who is really at risk? Epilepsy can develop in any...
Epilepsy affects nearly 3 million Americans. But who is really at risk? Epilepsy can develop in any person at any age. Almost 1% of people will develop epilepsy during their lifetime- that's 60 million people worldwide. In other words, out of 60,000 people filling a big stadium, about 500 have epilepsy. New cases of epilepsy are most common among children, especially during their first year. The rate of new cases gradually declines until about age 10, and then becomes stable. After age 60, the rate starts to increase again. Many famous people in history had or may have had epilepsy, A. including world leaders like Julius Caesar, B. writers like Lewis Caroll, C. artists like Vincent Van Gogh, D. and athletes like Chanda Gunn, goaltender for the U.S. Olympic Hockey team. The causes of epilepsy can be divided into two groups: brain injuries and chemical imbalances in the brain. Anything that injures the brain can lead to seizures, but in over half the cases no cause can be identified. The type of injury that can lead to a seizure is age-dependent. Seizures in children often are caused by birth traumas, infections like meningitis, congenital abnormalities, or high fevers. Seizures in the middle years commonly are caused by head injuries, infections, alcohol, stimulant drugs, or medication side effects. In the elderly, brain tumors and strokes cause a higher proportion of seizures. Not all seizures result from a structural problem in the brain. Chemical imbalances also can cause seizures. Common chemical imbalances that can produce seizures include: Drugs like alcohol, cocaine, and others. Low blood sugar, low oxygen, low blood sodium, or low blood calcium. Kidney failure, liver failure, or other conditions. Doctors will evaluate you for these imbalances by taking a careful history and blood tests. Although these disorders and injuries can explain many cases of epilepsy, often the cause of epilepsy remains "idiopathic," which is the medical term for unknown. Scientists increasingly recognize the importance of genetic factors in the origin of epilepsy. About half the time, no cause for a seizure can be identified. Fortunately, we do not need to know the cause to treat the seizures. Genetics are most relevant to generalized seizures, including absence, generalized tonic-clonic, and myoclonic seizures. Defects in genes don't lead directly to epilepsy, but they can alter the excitability of the brain in a way that predisposes it to seizures. Typically, epilepsy develops because of multiple gene abnormalities, or a gene abnormality in concert with an environmental trigger. Parents with epilepsy worry whether their children will have epilepsy. In most cases, they won't, but they do have a higher risk than others. If the mother has a generalized type of epilepsy, the child's chances of having epilepsy may be as high as 5% to 20%. But if a parent has epilepsy due to a brain injury, the child's chance of having epilepsy is only about 5%. If you or someone close to you is suffering from seizures, please see a physician immediately. "The movies in this series can be viewed in any order. If you wish to watch these clips in their original sequence, the next clip is, "How to Diagnose Epilepsy?"More »
Last Modified: 2013-09-27 | Tags »
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Diagnosing epilepsy can be a complicated process. Watch this video to learn how doctors tell the difference between it and other conditions.
Transcript: Many conditions can imitate seizures, so doctors use four different methods to help diagnose epilepsy....
Many conditions can imitate seizures, so doctors use four different methods to help diagnose epilepsy. Some people worry that they or a relative have epilepsy because of daydreaming, excessive sleepiness, fainting spells, warning strokes, tremors, or other conditions that look like seizures. But these symptoms can be caused by diseases other than just epilepsy. To make a proper diagnosis of epilepsy, doctors use four methods: history, exam, EEG, and MRI. The first method used is the neurological history, when the doctor is given a clear description of any past seizure activity. Most seizures have a clear start and finish, last from seconds to a few minutes, occur at seemingly random times, and comprise certain sensations and behaviors that clinicians can recognize. Patients may not remember their behavior during seizures, so descriptions from observers are very important. A physical exam cannot uncover epilepsy, but it can show problems indicating that a part of the brain isn't working properly, and may be generating seizures. The third method of diagnosis is an EEG, or electroencephalogram, which measures the patient's brain waves. A. The brain produces electricity, which can be measured by wires glued onto the scalp. B. The EEG records and charts these electrical voltages. The normal up and down movements of these voltages create the wave-like pattern seen here. A. Spikes on the EEG are markers of hyper-excitable parts of the brain, which mark potential locations where seizures may arise. B. The presence of spikes helps to confirm a diagnosis of epilepsy, provided the history is also convincing. Some people have EEG spikes without seizures, so a history of seizures is needed to make a diagnosis. In a patient with epilepsy, an EEG recorded between seizures has a 50-50 chance of seeing spikes, so a normal EEG doesn't rule out a diagnosis of epilepsy. The fourth diagnostic method used is neuroimaging. Neuroimaging looks at the structure of the brain. The two most commonly used neuroimaging tests are a brain CT scan and a brain MRI. A CT is faster, easier and less expensive, but an MRI shows more detail. Neuroimaging cannot show abnormal electrical activity or a seizure itself, but it can show physical changes in the brain, which may suggest the reason for the seizures. This MRI shows bruising of both frontal lobes, in a case of head trauma. Although head trauma without loss of consciousness rarely causes epilepsy, serious head trauma with prolonged unconsciousness sometimes does. People with seizures worry that they might have a brain tumor, but fortunately tumors actually cause only a small percentage of seizures. This MRI shows a region of stroke, which results from a sudden blockage of blood flow to the brain. Seizures don't cause strokes, but strokes can lead to seizures.This happens when brain cells are injured and can no longer control their electrical activity. One stroke can cause ongoing seizures for years. Abnormal blood vessels in the brain like aneurysms, arteriovenous malformations, or cavernous angiomas can all cause seizures. The malformation itself doesn't generate seizures, but the irritated brain cells nearby may. This is a congenital abnormality in the brain called a dysplasia, or a "birthmark in the brain." A dysplasia is made up of normal cells in an abnormal location. Dysplasias don't grow, but they are a common cause of epilepsy. Your doctor will combine information from your history, exam, and if needed, EEG and MRI to determine if you have epilepsy. A diagnosis cannot always be made, but if diagnosis is difficult, you can be referred to an epilepsy specialist for a more detailed evaluation. "The movies in this series can be viewed in any order. If you wish to watch these clips in their original sequence, the next clip is, "How to Diagnose Epilepsy?More »
Last Modified: 2013-06-04 | Tags »
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Learn to differentiate between the truths about epilepsy and the myths. Click on our link to learn more about epilepsy via our video.
Transcript: Although epilepsy has affected humans for millions of years, myths about the disorder still abound. Let's...
Although epilepsy has affected humans for millions of years, myths about the disorder still abound. Let's look at some basic facts about this common condition. Up to 60 million people in the world currently have epilepsy, a neurological condition that affects the nervous system. Epilepsy is a condition of recurrent seizures. A seizure is a sudden, excessive discharge of electrical activity in the nervous system that causes a change in behavior, movement, sensation or consciousness. Because epilepsy varies from person to person, it can be helpful to examine some critical facts about the condition. Let's look at ten of them. People with epilepsy should not be called "epileptics," as this term defines someone by one trait only. It is better to refer to someone as, "a person with epilepsy." To many, the term "seizure disorder" is also synonymous with epilepsy. Another truth about epilepsy is that people with the condition are seldom brain-damaged. While brain function can be temporarily disturbed by seizures, brain damage, or a permanent problem with the brain's structure, is not synonymous with epilepsy. Like any other group, people with epilepsy have different intellectual abilities. Some are brilliant, while others have problems with basic cognitive functioning. For the most part though, people with epilepsy have normal intelligence. Although seizures can be confusing and are often misconstrued as violent or challenging behavior, people with epilepsy have no greater tendency toward violence or aggression than do others. Despite ancient falsehood that put epilepsy in the same class as mental illness. In fact, the majority of people with seizures do not develop mental health problems. Single seizures that last less than ten minutes are not known to cause brain damage or injury in the long-term. While there may be a cumulative effect from frequent seizures, this appears to be rare. Another fact about epilepsy is that the condition is not usually inherited. While some types of epilepsy are passed on through family, the majority of cases have unknown, or environmental, causes. Most people who develop epilepsy have seizures and require medication for only a small portion of their lives. In fact, about 60 percent of people with epilepsy find that it goes away with treatment. Witch hunting in the 1490s focused on finding people with seizures and even the bible declares that epilepsy is caused by an internal devil. Contrary to these stigmas however, epilepsy is a medical problem: Nothing more. Perhaps the most liberating truth surrounding epilepsy is that it is perfectly compatible with a normal, happy life. A positive outlook, a supportive environment and good medical care usually make it possible to live fruitfully with epilepsy. Although epilepsy has generated fear and confusion in the past, modern medicine has been able to break down many of the myths about this common condition. Remember, if you think you may have epilepsy, please see your doctor.More »
Last Modified: 2013-10-07 | Tags »
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This video looks back at Epilepsy through the ages to give you a better understanding of this illness.
Transcript: Epilepsy has attracted attention and been a source of controversy since the dawn of our recorded history....
Epilepsy has attracted attention and been a source of controversy since the dawn of our recorded history. Let's look back at the history of this common condition. One percent of the world's population has epilepsy, a condition of spantaneously recurrent siezures. A seizure is a sudden, excessive discharge of nervous-system electrical activity that usually causes unexpected changes in behavior. Epilepsy is not a new affliction. In fact, the esteemed Greek physician Hippocrates wrote the first book on epilepsy in the year 400 B.C! Hippocrates refuted the idea that epilepsy was a curse or a sign from the Gods. "It appears to me to be nowise more divine, nor more sacred than other diseases, but has a natural cause like other affections..." In 70 A.D., epilepsy even made a debut in the bible! In the Gospel according to Mark, Jesus Christ casts out a "devil" from a boy with seizures. Years later, in 1494, two Dominican friars wrote a handbook on witch-hunting which identified seizures as a characteristic of witches. The persecution that followed resulted in over 200,000 deaths. Epilepsy continued to be a condition of confusion and controversy when, in the mid 1800's, three English neurologists ushered in the modern era of epilepsy. At this time, one of the neurologists, John Hughlings Jackson, defined a seizure as an "occasional, an excessive and a disorderly discharge of nerve tissue on the muscles." From Jackson and Others, epilepsy was declared to come from the brain. Several years later, in 1904, American William Spratling coined the term epileptologist-a doctor who specializes in epilepsy. In 1912, the first seizure medication, phenobarbital, was created as a sedative, but soon was found useful for seizures and it is still used today. Eight years later, the ketogenic diet was devised. This meal plan is high in fat and low in proteins. It is meant to simulate the effects of fasting, a state that can decrease seizures. In 1929, German psychiatrist Hans Berger invented the electroencephalogram, or EEG recording method. This made it possible to record the brain's electric currents without opening the skull. In the next thirty years, a host of new epilepsy medications were introduced to treat and prevent the range of seizures. In 1909 the Internationl League Against Epilepsy was founded, and in 1968, the Epilepsy Foundation of America was founded. Along with the Amercian Epilepsy Society and the Epileptic Therapy Project, these are now the main organizations dedicted to fighting epilepsy. Even in the twentieth century, some states had laws forbidding people with epilepsy to marry or have children! Luckily, this practice was ended with the Americans with Disabilities act of 1990. During the next ten years, new medications provided even more seizure control. And in 1997, the FDA approved vagus nerve stimulation to treat partial epilepsy in adults. In 2000, the Epilepsy Foundation organized a landmark conference which set bold goals for the future, including finding a cure for epilepsy. It's clear that people with epilepsy have come a long way toward healing-and society has come a long way toward understanding!More »
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Topamax (topiramate) is a popular drug for treating migraine symptoms. Learn more about its effects, here.
Transcript: Topiramate is a prescription medication which is available only under the brand name Topamax. This medication...
Topiramate is a prescription medication which is available only under the brand name Topamax. This medication belongs to a class of drugs known as anticonvulsants. No one is exactly sure how Topamax works, but it is believed to calm excitable, overactive neurons in the brain that can lead to a seizure or a migraine. Topamax is used in the prevention of migraine headaches, and is also prescribed to prevent generalized and partial seizures in children as young as two. People with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, a severe type of childhood -onset epilepsy may also benefit from topiramate. Topamax is available in capsules of 15 and 25 milligrams, and in tablets of 25, 100, and 200 milligrams. Topamax should be taken exactly as prescribed, usually once a day, with a full glass of water. Because this medication increases the risk of kidney stones, it's a good idea to stay well hydrated while taking it. The most commonly reported side effects of Topamax include fatigue, confusion, and weight loss, but please ask your doctor for a complete list. Also, tell your doctor IMMEDIATELY if you experience blurred vision, kidney stones, a high fever, or any other significant changes. Topamax should be taken cautiously in conjunction with the seizure medications Diamox or Zonegran, and should be avoided by people with kidney prTopamax can be useful for preventing both migraine headaches and seizures. However, this medication must always be used under the direct care of a physician. Please ask for and review all of the patient information provided by your doctor before taking Topamax. oblems. Ask your doctor for a full list of medications and conditions that should not be combined with topiramate.More »
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Lamicta, generic name Lamotrigine, is a seizure medication. Watch this video to learn about Lamicta dosage and Lamicta side effects.
Transcript: Lamotrigine is a prescription medication which is available both as a generic and under the brand name...
Lamotrigine is a prescription medication which is available both as a generic and under the brand name Lamictal. Despite the availability of a generic formulation, some doctors and pharmacists prefer the brand name due to subtle differences. No one is exactly sure how this anticonvulsant works, but it is believed to calm excitable, overactive neurons in the brain that can lead to a seizure. Lamotrigine is most commonly used in the treatment of partial seizures and Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, a severe type of childhood-onset epilepsy. It can also be used in conjunction with other medications to treat bipolar disorder. Lamictal is available in regular tablets from 25 to 200 milligrams, and in chewable tablets of 2 to 25 milligrams. Generic lamotrigine is only available in this chewable preparation. Lamotrigine should be taken with a full glass of water according to your doctor's instructions. Do not suddenly stop taking this medication, as seizures or bipolar disorder can return quickly. The most commonly reported side effects of lamotrigine include dizziness, headache, or nausea, but please ask your doctor for a complete list. Also, tell your doctor IMMEDIATELY if you experience a rash, fever, swelling of the lips and tongue, or any other significant changes. Lamotrigine may be less effective if taken in conjunction with birth control pills and should be used cautiously in conjunction with sedatives. Ask your doctor for a full list of medications and conditions that should not be combined with lamotrigine. Lamictal can be effective at preventing certain types of seizures. However, this medication must always be used under the direct care of a physician. Please ask for and review all of the patient information provided by your doctor before taking lamotrigine.More »
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If you have migraine or epilepsy, Depakote, can help treat your condition. Watch this video and learn about Depakote uses and Depakote side effects.
Transcript: Divalproex sodium is a prescription medication which is available only under the brand name Depakote....
Divalproex sodium is a prescription medication which is available only under the brand name Depakote. This medication belongs to a class of drugs known as anticonvulsants. No one is exactly sure how Depakote works, but it is believed to calm excitable, overactive neurons in the brain that can lead to a seizure or migraine. Depakote is used in the prevention of migraine headaches, and is also prescribed to control absence seizures and partial seizures. People who suffer from manic episodes associated with bipolar disorder may also benefit from Depakote. Depakote is available in tablets of 125, 250 and 500 milligrams, and in a sustained-release tablet of 500 milligrams. A 125 milligram capsule can be opened and sprinkled in food. Depakote should be taken exactly as prescribed. The sustained-release tablets should always be swallowed whole, as they are designed to release medication into the body over time. The most commonly reported side effects of Depakote include fatigue, nausea, and weight gain, but please ask your doctor for a complete list. Also, tell your doctor IMMEDIATELY if you experience easy bruising, abdominal pain, weakness, or any other significant changes. Depakote should not be taken by people who have liver disease or are pregnant and should not be combined with alcohol. Ask your doctor for a full list of medications and conditions that should not be combined with Depakote. Depakote is a requently prescribed anticonvulsant for controlling migraine headaches and epileptic seizures. However, this medication must always be used under the direct care of a physician. Please ask for and review all of the patient information provided by your doctor before taking Depakote.More »
Depakote, Divalproex, anticonvulsants, overactive neurons, seizure prevention, migraine prevention, depakote side effects, divalproex side effects, bipolar disorder, easing manic episodes easy bruising, abdominal pain, weakness, fatigue, nausea, weight gain, liver disease conditions, epilepsy, neurological disorders
Paxil is a common antidepressant used to treat depression. See how Paxil works, and about its possible side effects.
Transcript: Paroxetine is a prescription medication which is available both as a generic drug and under the brand...
Paroxetine is a prescription medication which is available both as a generic drug and under the brand name Paxil. Paroxetine belongs to a class of drugs known as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, or SSRIs. Like other SSRIs, paroxetine is believed to work by increasing the brain's supply of the feel-good hormone, serotonin. This corrects an existing chemical imbalance, improving mood and creating a feeling of well-being. Paroxetine is most commonly used in the treatment of clinical depression and anxiety disorders. It can also be effective at treating social anxiety disorder. Paxil is available in tablets of ten to forty milligram. An extended release version, Paxil CR, is available in capsules of twelve point five to thirty-seven point five milligrams. Paroxetine should be taken once a day with water. Once you have been taking this medication regularly, do NOT suddenly stop using it, as serious withdrawal symptoms can occur. The most commonly reported side effects of paroxetine include apathy, sexual dysfunction, and drowsiness, but please ask your doctor for a complete list. Also, tell your doctor IMMEDIATELY if you experience spasms or seizures, yellowing of the skin and eyes, suicidal thoughts, or any other significant changes. Paroxetine should not be taken with MAO Inhibitors, like Nardil, or by anyone who is pregnant. Ask your doctor for a full list of medications and conditions that should not be combined with paroxetine. Paxil is a commonly used drug and it can be very effective at easing the symptoms of people with depression. However, this medication must always be used under the direct care of a physician. Please ask for and review all of the patient information provided by your doctor before taking paroxetine.More »
Last Modified: 2014-01-20 | Tags »
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