Symptoms of Parkinson's Disease
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Symptoms of Parkinson's Disease can include tremors. Learn about other symptoms in this video.
Transcript: In 1817, James Parkinson used the words "shaking palsy" to describe the symptoms of the disease that...
In 1817, James Parkinson used the words "shaking palsy" to describe the symptoms of the disease that was eventually named after him. The TREMORS of the hands, ARMS, legs, JAW and face that he described are perhaps the most obvious symptoms, but as he noticed, they're NOT the only ones. This motor disorder has THREE other primary symptoms: Slowness of movement, known as bradykinesia, stiffness of the limbs and torso, and diminished balance and coordination. And loss of motor function becomes worse over time as nerve cells that produce the neurotransmitter DOPAMINE, which controls movement, gradually degenerate. This slow erosion of muscle control causes people with Parkinson's to experience SECONDARY symptoms such as difficulty speaking, swallowing or chewing, urinary problems, cognitive issues, sleep disruptions, and depression and anxiety. Learn more about Parkinson's disease by watching the other videos in this series.More »
Last Modified: 2012-08-10 | Tags »
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When your loved one has multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease or another neurological disorder, your first-and second-- instinct is to provide care no matter what it takes. But who's looking out for you? Take this survey to tell us how you tend to your
Last Modified: 2013-10-04 | Tags »
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Migraine is one of the most debilitating disorders on the planet. But the many legendary artists, philosophers, writers and politicians who had migraines prove that these headaches don't stand in the way of talent and ambition. Take the quiz to find out m
Last Modified: 2011-12-05 | Tags »
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Do you have atrial fibrillation? Treatments for this condition include lifestyle changes, medication and surgery. Check out our video to learn in detail about atrial fibrillation treatments.
Transcript: To treat atrial fibrillation -- an irregular, rapid heartbeat -- your doctor will prescribe medications...
To treat atrial fibrillation -- an irregular, rapid heartbeat -- your doctor will prescribe medications and lifestyle changes to REGULATE your heart rate and PREVENT blood clots that could cause a stroke or heart attack. In some cases, medical procedures or surgery are also necessary. To slow your heart rate, beta-blockers and calcium channel blockers are often prescribed. They help dilate blood vessels, which takes pressure off the heart and lowers blood pressure. Digoxin is also prescribed to slow your heart rate. It works by regulating electrical impulses that generate the heartbeat. Antiarrhythmic medications such as POTASSIUM channel blockers and sodium channel blockers are also recommended. Sodium channel blockers reduce the heart's ability to conduct electricity, while potassium channel blockers slow down the electrical signals. They both keep erratic electric impulses from making the heart beat sporadically. These medications are initially effective 30 to 60 percent of the time, but may lose their usefulness. And in some cases they can cause more arrhythmia. To prevent or treat existing blood clots, blood thinners, known as anticoagulants and antiplatelets, are recommended. Aspirin, heparin, warfarin, and dabigatran are the most common ones. It is also important to make lifestyle changes that will protect your heart. For instance, quitting smoking, drinking alcohol in moderation - or not at all - and avoiding caffeine may lower blood pressure and increase blood oxygenation. Also, tell your doctor about your use of all over-the counter medications; certain cough and cold medications can aggravate symptoms, as can caffeine-containing migraine medications. Sometimes, when medications and lifestyle changes don't stabilize your heart rhythm, a medical procedure or surgery may be needed. To find out about medical procedure and surgeries to correct atrial fibrillation, watch the other videos in this series. For more information on atrial fibrillation causes and diagnosis, check out other videos on this site.More »
Last Modified: 2012-11-17 | Tags »
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Migraines can be a serious pain. But you're not alone. See what commonly triggers attacks in your fellow migraineurs.
Last Modified: 2012-08-14 | Tags »
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There are four courses of Multiple Sclerosis, each with different symptoms and effects. Watch this video to find out what these courses of MS are in detail.
Transcript: Although there are 4 different courses of multiple sclerosis, it BEGINS when the immune system MISTAKENLY...
Although there are 4 different courses of multiple sclerosis, it BEGINS when the immune system MISTAKENLY attacks MYELIN, a protein that forms a protective sheath that covers the end of neurons --nerve cells that transmit messages to the spinal cord and brain. MS is an autoimmune disease - and no one is sure what it is that makes the body destroy its own essential components. But once it begins, it may trigger what is called relapsing-remitting MS, the MOST common course of the disease. About 85 percent of people are INITIALLY diagnosed with this form of the disease. This type of MS features unpredictable, inflammatory attacks that can last for days or weeks. But it then goes into partial or FULL remission for weeks, months or YEARS, only to RETURN once again at some unpredictable future date. Most people with relapsing-remitting MS will go on to develop SECONDARY progressive MS. During this course the symptoms worsen STEADILY over the years as nerve damage increases and spreads. Disease-modifying therapy with biologics, such as beta 1-a, MAY be able to delay the onset of this course or control symptoms. Only around 10 percent of people are initially diagnosed with PRIMARY-progressive MS. Patients with this course START off with a steady worsening of symptoms and nerve damage. Disability will likely get worse over the years, although it may plateau at some point. There are no episodes of suddenly worsening symptoms - sometimes called exacerbations. Progressive relapsing MS is the LEAST common course. It affects about 5% of people with the disease. This type is characterized by a steady progression of nerve damage right from the beginning - and with occasional exacerbations, when symptoms flare up suddenly. Each flare may be different - some triggering only one symptom, some causing multiple problems. No matter the course of disease, some of the many possible symptoms of MS include blurry or double vision, numbness, tingling, imbalance, dizziness, and walking problems.More »
Last Modified: 2013-09-11 | Tags »
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These throbbing headaches often come with warning symptoms, but have you ever traced the cause of your migraine attacks? Watch the video to find out about migraine triggers.
Transcript: Sometimes a migraine headache seems to come out of nowhere. But could something actually be setting...
Sometimes a migraine headache seems to come out of nowhere. But could something actually be setting them off? Although migraine headaches are actually caused by physical changes in the brain, nearly 85% of migraine sufferers report that certain foods or environmental changes can "trigger" a headache. Even though there are a number of commonly recognized triggers, each trigger affects individual patients differently. There are a number of foods that are recognized as headache triggers. One common trigger is alcoholic beverages, especially red wine, which contains tannins. Caffeine withdrawal is also prone to set off headaches, which is why overuse of caffeinated beverages like coffee and soda can trigger a migraine. Also, MSG, a spice found most commonly in Chinese food, can initiate a migraine headache in some patients. Although there is a popular perception that chocolate plays a role in initiating migraine headaches, many experts now believe that chocolate is not actually a migraine trigger. Rather the desire to eat chocolate is a sign of an impending migraine attack. In addition to eating these particular foods, missing a meal can also initiate a headache. But food is by no means the only kind of headache trigger. Significant changes in weather, such as an approaching storm front, also commonly precede migraines. There are actually hundreds of different triggers that patients have reported. Some other frequently reported triggers include intense stress, bright light, cigarette smoke, the scent of perfumes and cleaning products, menstruation, and rapid changes in temperature. It is important to remember that very few of these reported triggers will actually start a headache for any particular person. In fact, most patients have three or fewer triggers, and one very effective way to prevent headaches is to identify these triggers and avoid them. If you want to identify what your triggers are, one very useful tool is the headache diary. Frequent headache sufferers should start with a blank notebook, and put the date at the top of each page. Each day you should record the weather, everything you eat, any stressful events, or anything else that seems significant to you, as well as the time, strength, and duration of any headaches. Once you've recorded several headaches, look at the entries you made on those days. Are there items in common? If there are, you may have identified one of your headache triggers. Try to avoid that trigger, and see if that helps reduce your headache frequency. The movies in this series can be viewed in any order. If you wish to watch these clips in their original sequence, then the next clip is, "Stop Your Migraine Before it Stops You: Abortive Medicines," which discusses how certain medications can be used at the onset of headaches to prevent them from developing. The clip recounts the story of how these medications helped a professional football player to remain in the Super Bowl despite getting a migraine during the game.More »
Last Modified: 2013-06-12 | Tags »
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The media talks about antioxidants all the time, but what are antioxidants, really? Watch this video to learn how they benefit your brain.
Transcript: According to the American Journal of Physiology, your brain represents just two-percent of your body...
According to the American Journal of Physiology, your brain represents just two-percent of your body weight, but demands 20-PERCENT of your resting metabolism! In other words, your mind's your body's biggest energy hog, and you have to feed it well if you want it to perform. The best foods for your thinker are known as antioxidants, which include: Vitamin C, Vitamin E, and beta-carotene, a form of Vitamin A. To see how antioxidants work, understand that, like the rest of the body, the brain ages over time. Free radicals, unstable atoms or molecules that occur in the body, are partly to blame. When free radicals meet with oxygen, the result is rust-like oxidative damage to the brain. The good news is that antioxidants REDUCE that damage, keep the brain agile and help slow the aging process. Blueberries, one of the most powerful antioxidants, also reduces the effects of diseases like Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. Prunes, raisins, blackberries, and pomegranates are ripe with good-for-you antioxidants, too. Meanwhile, spinach, Swiss chard, and arugula are vegetables with excellent antioxidant power. Plus, these leafy greens help the body produce happiness hormones, like serotonin and dopamine. When consuming both fruits and veggies, remember: the darker the color, the higher the antioxidant content! Two other brain-boosting sources of antioxidants are probably already a regular part of your diet. I'm talking about coffee and dark chocolate. Aside from slowing down free radical damage, these substances contain caffeine, which enhances short-term memory. Plus, dark chocolate stimulates endorphins, which help improve mood! Just consume in moderation: one ounce of dark chocolate each day is plenty, and you should stop at two to three cups of java or tea. To further boost your brainpower, consume a healthy portion of omega-3 fatty acids. Omega-3s are a primary building block of healthy brain tissue. Find them in coldwater fish like salmon, mackerel, and sardines, and aim for two to three four-ounce servings every week. A good brain diet is basically a healthy body diet. It's easy, natural and tasty, so go ahead and nourish your noggin!More »
Last Modified: 2013-10-01 | Tags »
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The brain is a powerful organ but it needs exercise too! Exercising your brain can improve your overall brain health and ability to remember things. Watch this video for memory-boosting tips.
Transcript: Several areas of the brain are associated with memory. The hippocampus, a librarian of sorts, integrates...
Several areas of the brain are associated with memory. The hippocampus, a librarian of sorts, integrates new information into short-term memory and maintains long-term memories within the cerebral cortex. The amygdala processes memories of emotion. Experts say it takes approximately eight seconds of focused concentration to route information through the hippocampus into the correct memory center. Exercising your brain helps stimulate new pathways among brain cells. Word games and puzzles are good, but challenging yourself with new activities is even better. Learn to play chess, the piano-or read a book about something you know nothing about. The more you challenge your brain to do things new and differently, the better. Take a different route home from work. If you're right-handed, brush your teeth or write with your left hand and vice versa. Physical activity is just as important. It increases blood flow throughout your body-and your brain. 30 minutes of aerobic activity a day, or an equivalent amount of brisk walking, gardening or doing housework, is key. Being active socially is a great way to combine physical and mental challenges, such as golfing, dancing or meeting for a Tai Chi class. Another memory-boosting tip is called "chunking," which involves partitioning large amounts of information into easily digestible bites. For instance, you can remember phone numbers in groups of 3, 3, and 4, or think of your grocery list according to sections of the store. Certain foods may boost your brainpower, too. A recent study looked at wild blueberry juice and found it improved the learning and memory of older adults and feeding your brain with antioxidant-rich vegetables, dark-skinned fruits, cold-water fish and nuts also helped. For more information about memory and mental health, please see other videos on this siteMore »
Last Modified: 2014-01-21 | Tags »
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How much of your brain do you use? Probably more than you think. Check out this video to find out more about whether you use only 10% of your brain.
Transcript: People have believed that we use only 10% of our brains for more than 100 years. Unfortunately, all that...
People have believed that we use only 10% of our brains for more than 100 years. Unfortunately, all that means is that people have been wrong for MORE than 100 years. This is probably one of the most oft-repeated factoids about the brain, in part because it's been endlessly publicized in the media. Here's the thing, though; it's NOT true. Brain scans show that the vast majority of the brain does NOT lie fallow. For any given activity, like eating, walking, kissing, or reading naughty novels, you use a few specific parts of your brain. So where did the myth come from? Many sources point to an American psychologist from the early1900s, named William James, who said: "the average person rarely achieves but a small portion of his or her potential. "Many sources point to an American psychologist from the early1900s, named William James, who said: "the average person rarely achieves but a small portion of his or her potential." Over the course of a whole day, however, just about ALL of the brain is used at one time or another. You are, in fact, using 100% of your brain.More »
Last Modified: 2013-10-07 | Tags »
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Just like your body needs exercise to stay fit, your brain requires intellectual stimulation to stay sharp. Find out how brain games can help you with your focus.
Transcript: Just like your body, your brain needs regular exercise to stay in shape and perform at its peak. To understand...
Just like your body, your brain needs regular exercise to stay in shape and perform at its peak. To understand why, imagine your brain as a street map. Information passes between the brain's neurons through a network of neural pathways, much like traffic on streets and highways. If you only engage in a limited, routine number of activities, you only have that small a system of information roadways to use. Brain games encourage the mind to build new pathways. That means you'll use more of the available surface of your brain, meaning you'll store and retrieve information much more easily. Want proof? The New England Journal of Medicine says adults who engage in mentally stimulating activities on a regular basis are 63-percent less likely to develop dementia than those who rarely do. The best brain games are fresh and unusual to the person playing them, so if you're a seasoned Tetris player, you'll want to power down and visit a bookstore. Some options include word games, like crosswords, and number games, like Sudoku. Look up "free brain games" online and you'll get tons of options! And most phones allow you to download brain games, so you can play whenever you're stuck with some downtime. Board games, like chess and Scrabble, and card games, like Solitaire, are also great ways to stimulate the brain! But not all stimulation must stem from actual games. Basically, anything that forces your brain to pay attention to behavior that was once automatic will arouse your mind! Taking a different route to work, eating, writing, or using the mouse with your non-dominant hand, and showering with your eyes closed, are all ways to challenge the brain. But remember: A brain game stops being one if you're too used to it! So, when the New York Times Sunday crossword starts getting easy, give basic Sudoku a try! If you work with numbers for a living, consider drawing or painting. Keep challenging your mind, switch activities often, and enjoy the mental rewards of your workout!More »
Last Modified: 2013-08-12 | Tags »
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Your head hurts -- is it a migraine? This type of headache comes with very specific symptoms -- watch this video to learn about the signs of a migraine.
Transcript: Nearly 28 million Americans suffer from Migraine Headache each year. But what exactly is a migraine...
Nearly 28 million Americans suffer from Migraine Headache each year. But what exactly is a migraine headache? Migraines are disabling, painful, recurring, headaches that are often, but not always, one-sided. Migraines have had a dramatic impact on both American history and culture. During the Civil War both Robert E. Lee and Ulysses S. Grant, the generals leading the armies of both the Confederacy and the Union, suffered from prolonged and repeated migraine headaches. As well, Thomas Jefferson, endured migraines while helping to author the Declaration of Independence and The Constitution. Elvis Presley, the King of Rock & Roll, was also a migraine sufferer. In fact, contemporary doctors have suggested that much of The King's well publicized drug use was actually an attempt to self-medicate his headaches, as opposed to a hedonistic pursuit. Determining if you have a migraine headache can be tricky. Patients experience a wide variety of symptoms associated with their migraine headaches, which means that there is no such thing as a "typical" migraine. However, when suffering from migraine headache, people generally are sick to their stomach and often vomit. There are a number of other symptoms that are commonly experienced by migraine sufferers. Migraine headaches typically begin as a dull ache, and progress into a throbbing pain. Typical migraines last roughly 4 to 12 hours, although particularly bad migraines can last as long as a week. When a patient is suffering from a migraine headache, they often are very sensitive to light, sounds, and certain odors; Also, many migraine sufferers have difficulty thinking and feel off balance. If one or more of these symptoms is present, (especially inability to function or nausea) it is likely that the headache sufferer is having a migraine. These symptoms are quite different than the symptoms of other common types of headache. About 20% of migraine patients also experience an "aura" before or during their headache. An aura is a physiological warning sign that a migraine headache is about to begin. When patients experience visual auras they often see bright spots or jagged lines. Some patients have sensory auras; pins and needles feelings that start in the hand and move up the arm. Rarely patients have scent-related auras, where they smell something which isn't there. Auras are the classic symptom of migraine - if you are experiencing an aura prior to the onset of your headache, it is very likely that you are suffering from migraine headaches. Today, there are a number of treatments that can provide effective, lasting relief for migraine headache sufferers. To learn about medications which can prevent you from getting migraines as well as medications capable of controlling the attack after it begins, be sure to check out the other short videos available in this series. Remember, migraines can be difficult to self-diagnose, so if you believe that you have migraine then your first step is to see a physician with an interest in headache. The movies in this series can be viewed in any order. If you wish to watch these clips in their original sequence, then the next clip is, "Migraine Auras: Through the Looking Glass."More »
Last Modified: 2013-09-27 | Tags »
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